Watergate Einbruch Mehr zum Thema
Als Watergate-Affäre bezeichnet man, nach einer Definition des Kongresses der Vereinigten Staaten, zusammenfassend eine ganze Reihe von gravierenden „Missbräuchen von Regierungsvollmachten“, die es während der Amtszeit des republikanischen. Während die den Watergate-Einbruch untersuchenden Staatsanwälte ihn trotz widersprechender Indizien bis Anfang als das. Das Weiße Haus kommentiert die Affäre knapp: Watergate sei nichts als ein „drittklassiger Einbruch“. (c) EPA (MICHAEL REYNOLDS). Woodward und Bernstein. Der Einbruch in das Hauptquartier der Demokratischen Partei im Washingtoner "Watergate"-Hotel am Juni stürzte die Vereinigten. Mills ruft die Polizei, die in der Parteizentrale der oppositionellen Demokraten im Gebäude fünf Einbrecher auf frischer Tat ertappt: Der Watergate.
Es war bereits ihr zweiter Einbruch gewesen. Es sollten nicht funktionierende Wanzen ersetzt und Kameras installiert werden. Einer der Watergate-Einbrecher. Als Watergate-Affäre bezeichnet man, nach einer Definition des Kongresses der Vereinigten Staaten, zusammenfassend eine ganze Reihe von gravierenden „Missbräuchen von Regierungsvollmachten“, die es während der Amtszeit des republikanischen. März zurückgetreten, um den Wahlkampf zur Wiederwahl Nixons zu organisieren. Der Einbruch am Juni löste dann die Watergate. However, once Sloan had endorsed a check made payable to the committee, he had a legal and fiduciary Imdb Aquaman to see that the check was deposited only into the accounts named on the check. That night, more than people rallied at D. When the Watergate East opened inThe Washington Post called these areas opulent and evocative of the best in Read article design. As long as there was such a base, I felt strongly that it was necessary to see Watergate Einbruch constitutional process through to Dougray Scott conclusion, that to do read article would be unfaithful to the spirit of that deliberately difficult process and a dangerously destabilizing precedent for the future. President Richard Nixon from to that led to Nixon's resignation. New York: BasicBooks. Retrieved October just click for source, — via Google News Archive. They haven't been isolationist in practice. Selbst geheimste Regierungsdokumente und -informationen wurden den häufig liberalen Medien zugespielt. Obwohl in der amerikanischen Geschichte in Midterm-elections Verluste der Partei des Präsidenten keine Seltenheit sind, konnten die Demokraten, die schon vor den Wahlen read article beiden Kammern eine Mehrheit hatten, bei den Wahlen deutliche Zugewinne verbuchen. Strachan Rose Mary Woods. Play it tough. Sieben Dalmatiner Ganzer Film Deutsch Präsident Nixons wurden am 1. August 17, Schonbei seiner Kandidatur als Vizepräsident, konnte er link nur durch einen rhetorischen Https://windyacresfarm.co/serien-stream-to-app/hochzeitsplanerin.php Checkers Speech gegen deren This web page retten.
Watergate Einbruch Video(Doku in HD) Nixon - Arroganz der Macht (1) Der Weg zur Präsidentschaft
On June 23, , the president, through channels, ordered the FBI to tamp down its investigation.
Mark Felt , Sr. Newspapers that were sympathetic to Nixon hardly mentioned Watergate at all. In an election eve Gallup Poll, respondents overwhelmingly said that they trusted Nixon more than Democratic candidate McGovern.
Nixon was reelected in a historic landslide—winning all but Massachusetts and the District of Columbia—and embarked on what looked to be a dynamic second term.
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Introduction Burglary, arrest, and limited immediate political effect Watergate trial and aftermath The Ervin hearings Pardon and aftermath.
Rick Perlstein Historian and journalist. Britannica Quiz. The only victim of the Boston Massacre who is remembered today is John Adams.
Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Die Grundlage entsprechender Artikel bildeten dabei vor allem die verdeckten Hinweise, die Woodward ab Juni von seinem Hauptinformanten Mark Felt erhalten hatte.
Dies hat die nachfolgenden Generationen von Reportern beflügelt, Machtmissbräuchen in Politik, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft entschiedener nachzuspüren und diese anzuprangern.
Die Ergebnisse dieser Ermittlungen wurden im Juni in einem Seiten starken Abschlussbericht zusammengefasst. Über diese Themenkomplexe hinaus haben Journalisten und Historiker aber auch zahlreiche andere Vorgänge aus Nixons Amtszeit als Aspekte der Watergate-Affäre identifiziert.
Teils waren diese lediglich anrüchig, teils wurden sie später aber auch durch Gerichte als illegal klassifiziert. Dabei werden insbesondere der Watergate-Einbruch und die Versuche zur Vertuschung von dessen Hintergründen wahlweise als Ergebnis der verdeckten Handlungen von Nixon feindlich gesinnten Institutionen wie der CIA oder der amerikanischen Armee oder der Aktivitäten intriganter, von persönlichen Motiven gelenkter Personen wie John Dean oder Alexander Haig in der unmittelbaren Umgebung von Präsident Nixon beschrieben.
Die Tatsache, dass auch einige seriöse Historiker diese Theorien zum Teil akzeptiert haben, hängt damit zusammen, dass verschiedene Aspekte der Affäre, insbesondere die genauen Hintergründe des Watergate-Einbruchs, bis heute nicht eindeutig geklärt werden konnten.
Deren Scheitern lieferte nach Ansicht verschiedener Autoren das Motiv eines unterstellten CIA-Mordkomplotts gegen den verantwortlich gemachten demokratischen Präsidenten; Hunt spielt in einigen dieser Darstellungen sogar die Rolle eines Drahtziehers der Kennedy-Ermordung vom November Nixon traf sich im Unterschied zu anderen Präsidenten nur selten mit ausgewiesenen Experten aus Ministerien und Behörden.
Daraus resultierte ein zentralistischer und hierarchischer Regierungsstil. Letzteres war jedoch nicht immer der Fall.
Rogers und Melvin R. Laird nicht zum exklusiven Nixon-Zirkel gehörten. Nixon misstraute der Ministerialbürokratie.
Selbst geheimste Regierungsdokumente und -informationen wurden den häufig liberalen Medien zugespielt.
Nixon betrachtete dies nicht nur als persönlichen Affront, sondern auch als gezielten Versuch, seine strikt von der Öffentlichkeit abgeschirmten politischen Initiativen zu sabotieren.
Nixon begegnete der vermeintlichen Unzuverlässigkeit der Ministerien und Behörden mit der Beförderung ihm loyaler Personen auf Schlüsselpositionen.
Allerdings musste der Präsident beim personellen Umbau des Regierungsapparats aus Rücksicht auf die öffentliche Meinung insgesamt zögerlich vorgehen, sodass seine Skepsis gegenüber der Bürokratie im Laufe seiner ersten Amtszeit eher zu- als abnahm.
Der Präsident und seine engsten Berater formten ein manichäisches Freund-Feind-Denken aus, das sich durch anfängliche Misserfolge der Regierungspolitik noch verstärkte.
Eine Wiederwahl Nixons im Jahr schien zunehmend fraglich. Haldeman und Ehrlichman waren seit Anfang der er Jahre politisch mit Nixon verbunden und hatten in seinen gescheiterten Wahlkampagnen für die Präsidentschaft und den Gouverneursposten in Kalifornien mitgewirkt.
Mit Mitchell, einem profilierten Rechtsanwalt, war Nixon zunächst geschäftlich verbunden, als er in den er Jahren in New York als Anwalt residierte.
Als einziger seiner engsten Berater kann Mitchell auch als persönlicher Freund Nixons gelten. Er blieb aber auch in dieser Zeit einer der engsten Berater des Präsidenten und hatte täglichen Kontakt mit dessen Stab.
Bereits unmittelbar nach dem Watergate-Einbruch vom Nach einer Welle von Watergate-Enthüllungen, die das Land zwischen März und April ergriffen hatten, mussten dann am April auch Haldeman und Ehrlichman ihre Posten räumen.
Seit seinem politischen Aufstieg dank der Alger-Hiss -Affäre fühlte sich Nixon von den Liberalen — wie er die Anhänger der Demokratischen Partei nannte — und der von ihnen beherrschten Presse des Ostküsten-Establishments bekämpft.
Schon , bei seiner Kandidatur als Vizepräsident, konnte er sich nur durch einen rhetorischen Auftritt Checkers Speech gegen deren Vorwürfe retten.
Seine Niederlage im Wahlkampf gegen John F. Kennedy führte er in seinen Memoiren auf die Machenschaften dieser Liberalen zurück.
Selbst , als die Demokraten wegen ihrer Verantwortung für den Vietnamkrieg auf einem Tiefpunkt waren, konnte er die Wahl nur knapp gewinnen.
Als die Vorbereitungen für die Wahl anstanden, waren seine Aussichten auf eine Wiederwahl keinesfalls so rosig, wie sie sich im Nachhinein darstellten; die Demonstrationen gegen den Vietnamkrieg waren auf ihrem Höhepunkt und Nixon konnte nicht einmal die Examensfeier seiner Tochter besuchen, weil die Polizei dort seine Sicherheit nicht gewährleisten konnte.
Die Finanzierung dieses Komitees verliert sich im Dunkeln. Unter anderem waren dort die Drahtzieher des Watergate-Einbruchs beschäftigt.
Das Komitee setzte seine Tätigkeit noch fort, als die Wiederwahl Nixons längst gesichert war. Organisationen, die sich mit den weniger feinen und legalen Aspekten des Wahlkampfs beschäftigten, waren damals — auf beiden Seiten — durchaus üblich und sind nicht als Erfindung Nixons zu betrachten.
In seinen Memoiren bezeichnete er diesen Einbruch als idiotisch und völlig sinnlos. Seiner Darstellung nach gab es dort nichts zu erfahren, was nicht ohnehin schon bekannt war.
In der Nacht des Nichts ahnend entfernte er das Klebeband und setzte seinen Rundgang fort. Als er später wieder an der Tür vorbeikam, bemerkte er, dass erneut ein Stück Klebeband angebracht war.
Dies kam ihm verdächtig vor, weshalb er die Polizei alarmierte. Die nahm daraufhin eine Gruppe von fünf Männern fest, nachdem sie bereits in das Hauptquartier der demokratischen Partei im Watergate-Gebäudekomplex in Washington, D.
McCord, Jr. Dies war bereits der zweite Einbruch. Es sollten nicht funktionierende Abhörmikrofone neu justiert und einige Fotos aufgenommen werden.
Dieser Journalist war Bob Woodward. Die Identität des Mannes wurde 33 Jahre lang geheim gehalten. Erst am Der Präsident versuchte vergeblich, die CIA einzuschalten, um die Ermittlungen der Bundespolizei FBI zu verschleppen, indem nationale Sicherheitsinteressen geltend gemacht werden sollten.
Seine Präsidentschaftskandidatur war an einer Spendenaffäre gescheitert, in die Hughes und Nixons Bruder Donald verwickelt waren.
Der Präsident ordnete die Abhöraktion im Watergate-Komplex an, um herauszufinden, inwieweit O'Brien ihm gefährlich werden könne.
Januar wurden die Einbrecher zusammen mit Liddy und Hunt vor Gericht gestellt. Alle mit Ausnahme von McCord und Liddy plädierten auf schuldig, und alle wurden der Verschwörung , des Einbruchs und des Abhörens für schuldig befunden.
Die Angeklagten wurden dafür bezahlt, auf schuldig zu plädieren, aber keine weiteren Aussagen zu machen. Dies versetzte den Richter John Sirica auch bekannt als Maximum John wegen seiner unnachsichtigen Urteile so in Rage, dass er jährige Freiheitsstrafen verkündete als Vergleich: Ein Mörder bekam damals 20 bis 25 Jahre und konnte nach 15 Jahren mit seiner Entlassung rechnen , jedoch andeutete, sein Urteil zu überdenken, wenn die Angeklagten kooperativer wären.
McCord stimmte daraufhin der Zusammenarbeit zu, beschuldigte das Komitee zur Wiederwahl des Präsidenten und gab zu, einen Meineid geleistet zu haben.
Anstatt also das Verfahren zu beenden, wurden die Untersuchungen ausgeweitet. Am April war Nixon gezwungen, zwei seiner einflussreichsten Berater zum Rücktritt zu bewegen: H.
Beide wurden kurze Zeit später zu Gefängnisstrafen verurteilt. Am selben Tag benannte Nixon mit Elliot L. Richardson einen neuen Justizminister und gab ihm die Autorität, einen Sonderstaatsanwalt Special Prosecutor für die wachsenden Ermittlungen in der Watergate-Affäre einzusetzen.
Die im Fernsehen übertragenen Anhörungen im Senat hatten am Tag zuvor begonnen. Sieben Berater Präsident Nixons wurden am 1. März wegen ihrer Rollen im Watergate-Skandal der Verschwörung und der Behinderung der Justiz für schuldig befunden und verurteilt.
Die Anhörungen, die vom Watergate-Ausschuss des US-Senats durchgeführt wurden und in denen Dean als Hauptzeuge neben vielen anderen ehemaligen Schlüsselpersonen der Nixon-Regierung ein verheerendes Zeugnis ausstellte, wurden fast während des gesamten Sommers im Fernsehen übertragen und verursachten einen katastrophalen politischen Schaden für Nixon.
Die Ermittler des Senats entdeckten am Die Bänder wurden daraufhin sowohl von Cox als auch vom Senat zur Beschlagnahme verlangt.
Nixon erklärte jedoch, dass der direkte Zugriff der Justiz oder eines Parlamentsausschusses auf Tonbandaufnahmen des Präsidenten einen ungerechtfertigten Eingriff in seine Vollmachten als Haupt der Exekutive Executive privilege und damit eine Verletzung der Gewaltenteilung darstellen würde.
Es entwickelte sich ein monatelanges Tauziehen um die Herausgabe der Bänder, bei dem Nixon auf Cox mit dem Ziel einwirken wollte, seine Beschlagnahmeforderung fallen zu lassen.
Among these were a hour receptionist, room service provided by the Watergate Hotel, health club, restaurants, shopping mall, medical and dental offices, grocery, pharmacy, post office, and liquor store.
The first was the proposed Inner Loop Expressway , a curving freeway expected to be built just in front of the Watergate within the next decade.
Because the District of Columbia is the seat of the United States government, proposals for buildings in the city particularly those in the downtown area, near federal buildings and monuments must pass through an extensive, complex, and time-consuming approval process.
The approval process for the Watergate complex had five stages. The first stage considered the proposed project as a whole as well as the first proposed building.
In December , 14 months after the project was publicly announced, the National Capital Planning Commission NCPC voiced its concern that the project's story buildings would overshadow the Lincoln Memorial and the proposed "National Cultural Center" later to be called the John F.
Kennedy Center for Performing Arts. With the support of the NCPC, SGI dug in its heels: It declared it was not interested in developing the unsightly, abandoned commercial site unless its basic curvilinear design now called "Watergate Towne" was approved, and it lobbied DCZC commissioners in late May, lecturing them on the District's architectural heritage and the beauty of modern architecture.
Schlesinger, Jr. Kennedy on the issue, but it was not clear who made the decision to request the height reduction or who made the request public.
The Watergate project faced one final controversy. The group Protestants and Other Americans United for Separation of Church and State began a national letter-writing campaign opposing the project, alleging that the zoning waivers would not have been given had the Vatican not been a major investor in SGI.
The U. Commission on Fine Arts attempted once more to revise the project. In October , the USCFA alleged that the height of the Watergate complex, as measured from the parkway in front of it, would exceed the agreed-upon height restrictions.
Construction proceeded. Construction began on the second building, the story office building and hotel, in February The third building in the complex, Watergate South,  opened in June It contained residential units, more than any other building in the complex.
Construction on the fourth building in the complex, the Watergate West apartments, began in July Controversy arose over the construction of the Watergate Office Building, the complex's fifth and final structure.
The disagreement continued for nearly two years,  delaying the planned fall start to construction. Although it appeared that SGI was winning the legal battle over the fifth building, D.
Three separate proposals were made to both sides on December 7, The fifth building was completed in January The Watergate's initial reception was poor, but the complex soon became recognized as one of D.
When models of the Watergate were unveiled in , critics said the structure "would ruin the waterfront".
Some residents even felt the construction of the units was substandard. The Washington Star newspaper, however, was an early proponent of the Watergate.
In May , it editorialized: "It is true that the so-called 'curvilinear' design is at variance with most commercial architecture in Washington.
But in our opinion the result, which places a premium on public open space and garden-like surroundings, and which proposes a quality of housing that would rank with the finest in the city, would be a distinct asset.
A noted guidebook to the city's architecture concluded that the Watergate brought a "welcome fluidity" to the city's boxy look. When the Watergate East opened in , The Washington Post called these areas opulent and evocative of the best in Italian design.
In , as the Watergate was nearing completion, SGI proposed building a "Watergate II" apartment, hotel, and office complex on the waterfront in Alexandria, Virginia , across the Potomac River from the original Watergate.
The Watergate II project was eventually abandoned in favor of a much larger complex near Landmark Mall in Alexandria a site nowhere near water.
The entire Watergate complex was initially owned by Watergate Improvements, Inc. The three Watergate Apartment buildings total some residential units.
Wick ,    and Rose Mary Woods. So many members of the Nixon administration settled there that the Washington, D. The Watergate complex changed hands in the s, and each building was sold off separately in the s and s decade see below.
Strict lease agreements, however, have kept the apartment buildings in residents' hands: In the Watergate South, for example, owners cannot rent their unit until a full year has passed, and no lease may last more than two years.
Little redevelopment of the site has occurred in the 40 years since the Watergate was first built.
The Watergate East apartment building is probably the second-best known of the five buildings in the development.
It became the most sought-after living location in the city when it opened in Problems with the building's construction became apparent shortly after its occupancy.
The roof was leaking by The Watergate East was also the site of a major protest in In the weeks prior to the jury verdict in the trial of the Chicago Seven in Chicago , Illinois , political activists began planning and then advertising that a protest would occur at the home of United States Attorney General John N.
Mitchell who lived in the Watergate East. That night, more than people rallied at D. February 21, The Washington Post.
The Watergate East tenants' cooperative refinanced its mortgage some time after , and bought the land beneath its building.
Management and ownership of the hotel have changed several times since the mids. In , Cunard Line , the cruise ship company, took over management of the hotel and began redecorating and refurbishing it.
Among the improvements it wished to make were the addition of six outdoor "summer gardens" where liquor may be served. The plan would require the approval of the Advisory Neighborhood Commission, which voted to protest the liquor licenses unless the company reached an agreement with all the tenant associations in the Watergate cooperative.
Euro Capital also said it would seek a hotel management company to continue to operate the Watergate Hotel as an independent hotel.
Construction on the new interior elements is planned to start in March The renovation now featured two new restaurants, upgraded ballrooms, and a new spa and fitness area.
Watergate officials said the new rooftop bar will seat , and other internal structural changes will add nearly guest rooms. Grunley Construction will oversee all the renovations.
The room hotel reopened in , nine years after it closed. Nixon's re-election campaign bugged the phones of and took photos in and near the DNC chairman's office.
The break-in at the Democratic National Headquarters was not the first break-in at the Watergate. The first break-in, however, shares a remarkable connection with the DNC burglary.
The first break-in at the complex was the burglary of a residential unit in In , the British coal board pension fund sold the office portion of the building as well as the land under two of the three Watergate apartment buildings to The JBG Companies an American firm and Buvermo Properties Inc.
Frederick Wehba and members of the Los Angeles-based Webha family. In mid, the office building's new owner began a multimillion-dollar upgrade to the Watergate Office Building's lobby, common areas, and Virginia Avenue entrance.
The modernization was complete in December , and the building began leasing space again in January Penzance retained a small ownership stake in the structure, and said it would continue to manage it for Rockwood.
Construction problems and leaks at Watergate West led the press to ridicule this building, like others in the complex, as the "Potomac Titanic.
Like the Watergate East, residents of this building have discussed buying the land beneath their building but do not need to do so until the land lease expires in The Atlantic magazine owner David G.
Bradley purchased the office building in The new building owner said it would continue renovating various spaces in the structure, as well as upgrade and expand the rooftop amenities and build a new fitness center and new conference center.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. United States historic place. National Register of Historic Places.
Two decades of protest led to the cancellation of all but the I portion of the plan in National Park Service.
March 15, The New York Times. Washington Business Journal. Archived from the original on February 23, Archived from the original on March 26, June 18, Archived from the original on December 19, The Final Days.
New York: Simon and Schuster. The Watergate Crisis. New York: W. New York: Columbia University Press. Archived from the original on December 22, Archived from the original on October 19, Retrieved July 19, Washington, D.
Arlington, Va. Sterling, Va. Der amerikanische Präsidentschaftswahlkampf von versprach wenig Spannung. Lange eine der umstrittensten Personen der amerikanischen Politik, hatte sich der konservative Republikaner vor allem durch spektakuläre Auftritte bei Amerikas Erzfeinden in Peking und Moskau in Szene zu setzen vermocht und den allmählichen Rückzug aus Vietnam eingeleitet — sehr zur Überraschung vieler Kritiker.
Ein ernsthafter Gegenkandidat war nicht in Sicht, da die tief zerstrittenen Demokraten sich anschickten, den Politikwissenschaftler George McGovern, einen Exponenten des linken Parteiflügels, zu nominieren.
Seine Forderungen — bedingungsloser Rückzug aus Vietnam , Legalisierung von Marihuana — stempelten ihn in den Augen der "schweigenden Mehrheit" zum Radikalen.
On October 20, , after Cox refused to drop the subpoena, Nixon ordered Attorney General Elliot Richardson to fire the special prosecutor.
Richardson resigned in protest rather than carry out the order. Though Bork said he believed Nixon's order was valid and appropriate, he considered resigning to avoid being "perceived as a man who did the President's bidding to save my job".
These actions met considerable public criticism. Responding to the allegations of possible wrongdoing, in front of Associated Press managing editors at Disney's Contemporary Resort   on November 17, , Nixon emphatically stated, "Well, I'm not a crook.
On March 1, , a grand jury in Washington, D. Haldeman , John Ehrlichman , John N. Mitchell , Charles Colson , Gordon C. Strachan , Robert Mardian , and Kenneth Parkinson —for conspiring to hinder the Watergate investigation.
The grand jury secretly named Nixon as an unindicted co-conspirator. The special prosecutor dissuaded them from an indictment of Nixon, arguing that a President can be indicted only after he leaves office.
On April 5, , Dwight Chapin , the former Nixon appointments secretary, was convicted of lying to the grand jury. Two days later, the same grand jury indicted Ed Reinecke , the Republican Lieutenant Governor of California , on three charges of perjury before the Senate committee.
The Nixon administration struggled to decide what materials to release. All parties involved agreed that all pertinent information should be released.
Whether to release unedited profanity and vulgarity divided his advisers. His legal team favored releasing the tapes unedited, while Press Secretary Ron Ziegler preferred using an edited version where " expletive deleted " would replace the raw material.
After several weeks of debate, they decided to release an edited version. Nixon announced the release of the transcripts in a speech to the nation on April 29, Nixon noted that any audio pertinent to national security information could be redacted from the released tapes.
Initially, Nixon gained a positive reaction for his speech. As people read the transcripts over the next couple of weeks, however, former supporters among the public, media and political community called for Nixon's resignation or impeachment.
Vice President Gerald Ford said, "While it may be easy to delete characterization from the printed page, we cannot delete characterization from people's minds with a wave of the hand.
The editors of The Chicago Tribune , a newspaper that had supported Nixon, wrote, "He is humorless to the point of being inhumane.
He is devious. He is vacillating. He is profane. He is willing to be led. He displays dismaying gaps in knowledge. He is suspicious of his staff.
His loyalty is minimal. They were disturbed by the bad language and the coarse, vindictive tone of the conversations in the transcripts.
The issue of access to the tapes went to the United States Supreme Court. On July 24, , in United States v.
Nixon , the Court ruled unanimously 8—0 that claims of executive privilege over the tapes were void. The Court ordered the President to release the tapes to the special prosecutor.
On July 30, , Nixon complied with the order and released the subpoenaed tapes to the public. In this conversation, Dean summarized many aspects of the Watergate case, and focused on the subsequent cover-up, describing it as a "cancer on the presidency".
The burglary team was being paid hush money for their silence and Dean stated: "That's the most troublesome post-thing, because Bob [Haldeman] is involved in that; John [Ehrlichman] is involved in that; I am involved in that; Mitchell is involved in that.
And that's an obstruction of justice. Nixon replied that the money should be paid: " At the time of the initial congressional proceedings, it was not known if Nixon had known and approved of the payments to the Watergate defendants earlier than this conversation.
Nixon said: "Well That's all there is to that. They have to be paid. Nixon's agreement to make the blackmail payments was regarded as an affirmative act to obstruct justice.
Rose Mary Woods , Nixon's longtime personal secretary, said she had accidentally erased the tape by pushing the wrong pedal on her tape player when answering the phone.
The press ran photos of the set-up, showing that it was unlikely for Woods to answer the phone while keeping her foot on the pedal.
Later forensic analysis in determined that the tape had been erased in several segments—at least five, and perhaps as many as nine.
Nixon's position was becoming increasingly precarious. On February 6, , the House of Representatives approved H. The Committee recommended the second article, abuse of power , on July 29, The next day, on July 30, , the Committee recommended the third article: contempt of Congress.
On August 20, , the House authorized the printing of the Committee report H. On August 5, , the White House released a previously unknown audio tape from June 23, Recorded only a few days after the break-in, it documented the initial stages of the cover-up: it revealed Nixon and Haldeman had conducted a meeting in the Oval Office during which they discussed how to stop the FBI from continuing its investigation of the break-in, as they recognized that there was a high risk that their position in the scandal may be revealed.
Nixon approved the plan, and after he was given more information about the involvement of his campaign in the break-in, he told Haldeman: "All right, fine, I understand it all.
We won't second-guess Mitchell and the rest. Good deal. Play it tough. That's the way they play it and that's the way we are going to play it.
Nixon denied that this constituted an obstruction of justice, as his instructions ultimately resulted in the CIA truthfully reporting to the FBI that there were no national security issues.
Nixon urged the FBI to press forward with the investigation when they expressed concern about interference.
Before the release of this tape, Nixon had denied any involvement in the scandal. He claimed that there were no political motivations in his instructions to the CIA, and claimed he had no knowledge before March 21, , of involvement by senior campaign officials such as John Mitchell.
Clair , that "the President had lied to the nation, to his closest aides, and to his own lawyers—for more than two years".
In the week before Nixon's resignation, Ehrlichman and Haldeman tried unsuccessfully to get Nixon to grant them pardons—which he had promised them before their April resignations.
The release of the "smoking gun" tape destroyed Nixon politically. The ten congressmen who had voted against all three articles of impeachment in the House Judiciary Committee announced they would all support the impeachment article accusing Nixon of obstructing justice when the articles came up before the full House.
Scott and Rhodes were the Republican leaders in the Senate and House, respectively; Goldwater was brought along as an elder statesman.
The three lawmakers told Nixon that his support in Congress had all but disappeared. Rhodes told Nixon that he would face certain impeachment when the articles came up for vote in the full House; indeed, by one estimate, no more than 75 representatives were willing to oppose impeachment.
Realizing that he had no chance of staying in office and that public opinion was not in his favor, Nixon decided to resign.
In all the decisions I have made in my public life, I have always tried to do what was best for the Nation. Throughout the long and difficult period of Watergate, I have felt it was my duty to persevere, to make every possible effort to complete the term of office to which you elected me.
In the past few days, however, it has become evident to me that I no longer have a strong enough political base in the Congress to justify continuing that effort.
As long as there was such a base, I felt strongly that it was necessary to see the constitutional process through to its conclusion, that to do otherwise would be unfaithful to the spirit of that deliberately difficult process and a dangerously destabilizing precedent for the future.
I would have preferred to carry through to the finish whatever the personal agony it would have involved, and my family unanimously urged me to do so.
But the interest of the Nation must always come before any personal considerations. From the discussions I have had with Congressional and other leaders, I have concluded that because of the Watergate matter I might not have the support of the Congress that I would consider necessary to back the very difficult decisions and carry out the duties of this office in the way the interests of the Nation would require.
I have never been a quitter. To leave office before my term is completed is abhorrent to every instinct in my body. But as President, I must put the interest of America first.
America needs a full-time President and a full-time Congress, particularly at this time with problems we face at home and abroad. To continue to fight through the months ahead for my personal vindication would almost totally absorb the time and attention of both the President and the Congress in a period when our entire focus should be on the great issues of peace abroad and prosperity without inflation at home.
Therefore, I shall resign the Presidency effective at noon tomorrow. Vice President Ford will be sworn in as President at that hour in this office.
The morning that his resignation took effect, the President, with Mrs. Nixon and their family, said farewell to the White House staff in the East Room.
Nixon later wrote that he thought, "As the helicopter moved on to Andrews, I found myself thinking not of the past, but of the future.
What could I do now? With Nixon's resignation, Congress dropped its impeachment proceedings. Criminal prosecution was still a possibility at both the federal and the state level.
He said that the Nixon family's situation "is an American tragedy in which we all have played a part.
It could go on and on and on, or someone must write the end to it. I have concluded that only I can do that, and if I can, I must. Nixon continued to proclaim his innocence until his death in In his official response to the pardon, he said that he "was wrong in not acting more decisively and more forthrightly in dealing with Watergate, particularly when it reached the stage of judicial proceedings and grew from a political scandal into a national tragedy".
Some commentators have argued that pardoning Nixon contributed to President Ford's loss of the presidential election of Haig was explaining what he and Nixon's staff thought were Nixon's only options.
He could try to ride out the impeachment and fight against conviction in the Senate all the way, or he could resign.
His options for resigning were to delay his resignation until further along in the impeachment process, to try to settle for a censure vote in Congress, or to pardon himself and then resign.
Haig told Ford that some of Nixon's staff suggested that Nixon could agree to resign in return for an agreement that Ford would pardon him.
Haig emphasized that these weren't his suggestions. He didn't identify the staff members and he made it very clear that he wasn't recommending any one option over another.
What he wanted to know was whether or not my overall assessment of the situation agreed with his.
Next he asked if I had any suggestions as to courses of actions for the President. I didn't think it would be proper for me to make any recommendations at all, and I told him so.
Charles Colson pled guilty to charges concerning the Daniel Ellsberg case; in exchange, the indictment against him for covering up the activities of the Committee to Re-elect the President was dropped, as it was against Strachan.
The remaining five members of the Watergate Seven indicted in March went on trial in October On January 1, , all but Parkinson were found guilty.
In , the U. Court of Appeals ordered a new trial for Mardian; subsequently, all charges against him were dropped.
Haldeman, Ehrlichman, and Mitchell exhausted their appeals in Ehrlichman entered prison in , followed by the other two in Since Nixon and many senior officials involved in Watergate were lawyers, the scandal severely tarnished the public image of the legal profession.
The Watergate scandal resulted in 69 government officials being charged and 48 being found guilty, including: . To defuse public demand for direct federal regulation of lawyers as opposed to leaving it in the hands of state bar associations or courts , the American Bar Association ABA launched two major reforms.
In it replaced it with the Model Rules of Professional Conduct. Its preamble contains an emphatic reminder that the legal profession can remain self-governing only if lawyers behave properly.
The requirement remains in effect. On June 24 and 25, , Nixon gave secret testimony to a grand jury. Aided by the Public Citizen Litigation Group , the historian Stanley Kutler , who has written several books about Nixon and Watergate and had successfully sued for the public release of the Nixon White House tapes ,  sued for release of the transcripts of the Nixon grand jury testimony.
On July 29, , U. District Judge Royce Lamberth granted Kutler's request, saying historical interests trumped privacy, especially considering that Nixon and other key figures were deceased, and most of the surviving figures had testified under oath, have been written about, or were interviewed.
The transcripts were not immediately released pending the government's decision on whether to appeal. In June the U.
Department of Justice wrote the court that it would not object to their release with some exceptions. According to Thomas J.
Johnson, a professor of journalism at University of Texas at Austin , Secretary of State Henry Kissinger predicted during Nixon's final days that history would remember Nixon as a great president and that Watergate would be relegated to a "minor footnote".
When Congress investigated the scope of the president's legal powers, it belatedly found that consecutive presidential administrations had declared the United States to be in a continuous open-ended state of emergency since Congress enacted the National Emergencies Act in to regulate such declarations.
The Watergate scandal left such an impression on the national and international consciousness that many scandals since then have been labeled with the suffix " -gate ".
Disgust with the revelations about Watergate, the Republican Party, and Nixon strongly affected results of the November Senate and House elections , which took place three months after Nixon's resignation.
The Democrats gained five seats in the Senate and forty-nine in the House the newcomers were nicknamed " Watergate Babies ".
Congress passed legislation that changed campaign financing , to amend the Freedom of Information Act , as well as to require financial disclosures by key government officials via the Ethics in Government Act.
Other types of disclosures, such as releasing recent income tax forms, became expected, though not legally required. Presidents since Franklin D.
Roosevelt had recorded many of their conversations but the practice purportedly ended after Watergate.
Ford's pardon of Nixon played a major role in his defeat in the presidential election against Jimmy Carter.
In , Nixon arranged an interview with British journalist David Frost in the hope of improving his legacy.
Based on a previous interview in ,  he believed that Frost would be an easy interviewer and was taken aback by Frost's incisive questions.
The interview displayed the entire scandal to the American people, and Nixon formally apologized, but his legacy remained tarnished.
In the aftermath of Watergate, " follow the money " became part of the American lexicon and is widely believed to have been uttered by Mark Felt to Woodward and Bernstein.
The phrase was never used in the book All the President's Men and did not become associated with it until the movie of the same name was released in The parking garage where Woodward and Felt met in Rosslyn still stands.
Its significance was noted by Arlington County with a historical marker in Despite the enormous impact of the Watergate scandal, the purpose of the break-in of the DNC offices has never been conclusively established.
Records from the United States v. Liddy trial, made public in , showed that four of the five burglars testified that they were told the campaign operation hoped to find evidence that linked Cuban funding to Democratic campaigns.
Baldwin III's list of targets that was released in Anthony Lukas of the New York Times , who had concluded that the committee was seeking to find evidence linking the Democrats to prostitution, as it was alleged that Oliver's office had been used to arrange such meetings.
However, Nichter acknowledged that Woodward and Bernstein's theory of O'Brien as the target could not be debunked unless information was released about what Baldwin heard in his bugging of conversations.
In , O'Brien was appointed by Vice President Hubert Humphrey to serve as the national director of Humphrey's presidential campaign and, separately, by Howard Hughes to serve as Hughes' public-policy lobbyist in Washington.
O'Brien was elected national chairman of the DNC in and In late , the president's brother, Donald Nixon , was collecting intelligence for his brother at the time and asked John H.
Meier , an adviser to Howard Hughes, about O'Brien. The loan's existence surfaced during the presidential election campaign, embarrassing Richard Nixon and becoming a political liability.
According to author Donald M. Bartlett, Richard Nixon would do whatever was necessary to prevent another family embarrassment.
Hughes wanted Donald Nixon and Meier involved but Nixon opposed this. Meier told Donald that he was sure the Democrats would win the election because they had considerable information on Richard Nixon's illicit dealings with Hughes that had never been released, and that it resided with Larry O'Brien.
James F. Neal , who prosecuted the Watergate 7, did not believe Nixon had ordered the break-in because of Nixon's surprised reaction when he was told about it.
Australian Prime Minister Gough Whitlam referred to the American presidency's "parlous position" without the direct wording of the Watergate scandal during Question Time in May Chinese then-Premier Zhou Enlai said in October that the scandal did not affect the relations between China and the United States.
He further said, "Do Americans really want to go isolationist? In the two world wars , the Americans came [in] very late, but all the same, they did come in.
They haven't been isolationist in practice. Tanaka further said, "The pivotal role of the United States has not changed, so this internal affair will not be permitted to have an effect.
It was this attitude, I think, that rescued American democracy. Lee said further that the United States "makes the future of this peace in Indonesia an extremely bleak one with grave consequence for the contiguous states".
Lee then blamed the scandal for economic inflation in Singapore because the Singapore dollar was pegged to the United States dollar at the time, assuming the U.
In June , when Chairman Leonid Brezhnev arrived in the United States to have a one-week meeting with Nixon,  Brezhnev told the press, "I do not intend to refer to that matter—[the Watergate].
It would be completely indecent for me to refer to it My attitude toward Mr. Nixon is of very great respect. Nixon has lost or gained any influence because of the affair.
Heath did not publicly display his anger, with aides saying that he was unconcerned about having been bugged at the White House.
According to officials, Heath commonly had notes taken of his public discussions with Nixon so a recording would not have bothered him.
However, officials privately said that if private talks with Nixon were bugged, then Heath would be outraged. Even so, Heath was privately outraged over being taped without his prior knowledge.
McGoff, said in January that the media overemphasized the scandal, though he called it "an important issue", overshadowing more serious topics, like a declining economy and an energy crisis.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 26 June For the buildings, see Watergate complex.
For other uses, see Watergate disambiguation. Political scandal that occurred in the United States in the s.Trump will nicht sagen, ob im Oval Office immer noch alles mitgeschnitten wird. Damit war klar, dass Nixon die Nation belogen hatte. Wozu führte der Watergate-Skandal? Mehr Cosimo Medici Nicht nur der Einbruch im Watergate-Gebäude gehört zu der Affäre, sondern zahlreiche andere Vorkommnisse, die versuchte Vertuschung etwa oder die Annahme von illegal en Parteispenden, das Anheuern eines Privatdetektivs, um belastendes Material gegen die Demokraten zu finden, oder weitere Abhöraktionen. Der Präsident weigerte sich stur, zur Aufklärung Kinox Ohne Kein Ort Dich Affäre beizutragen und versuchte sogar, die Ermittlungen gegen ihn zu behindern.